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Etiology of Type 1 Diabetes...and the IL-4 Pathway....

"Natural Killer (NK) Cells Associate with Destructive Autoimmunity in Type 1 Models (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 10.1073/pnas.0402065101)"

"Plasmid Vaccination with Insulin B Chain Prevents Autoimmune Diabetes in Nonobese Diabetic Mice. This effect is absolutely dependent upon IL-4. . (The Journal of Immunology, [2001] 167: 2950-2955.)

"Some patients with idiopathic type 1 diabetes have a nonautoimmune, fulminant disorder characterized by the absence of insulitis and of diabetes-related antibodies, a remarkably abrupt onset, and high serum pancreatic enzyme concentrations. (N Engl J Med 2000;342:301-7.).....";

"Blocking interaction between CD44, hyaluronic acid prevents type 1 diabetes in NOD mice.....";

"Genetic Abnormality in Diabetic Mice May Answer Why Autoimmune Disease Are More Common in Women .....";

"The Human ENSA Gene That Encodes alpha-Endosulfine, a Regulator of beta-Cell KATP Channels, has been localized to an area of Chromosome 14 with IDDM susceptibility-linkage (IDDM11)..............";

"An insulin peptide fragment has been identified as an autoantigen in the NOD [Non-Obese Diabetic] mouse model..........";

"Focus of attack in Type 1 diabetes may be *stiff-man* antigen GAD.........";

"In identical twins discordant for type 1 diabetes the diabetic siblings appeared to secrete NO interleukin-4.......";

"IL-13 reduces incidence of Type 1 diabetes in NOD mice...........";

"Interleukin-4 appears to prevent insulitis and the development of Type 1 diabetes in the NOD mouse model.....";

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